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Small Business

Monday, August 10, 2015

My Business is Small. Do I Need a Succession Plan?

A Minneapolis Estate Planning Attorney Explains the Value of Drafting a Business Succession Plan for Small Business Owners 

Business succession planning is a practice or set of estate planning practices used by business owners to ensure that a small business can run successfully in the event of their death or in the unfortunate circumstance where they are unable to manage or operate the business.   I receive a lot of inquiries on this topic.  People want to know if they need a business succession plan or if they are somehow covered by wills and living trusts.  I usually walk people through a basic set of questions such as:


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Monday, March 30, 2015

For How Long Should a Business Keep Tax Records?

Minnesota Estate Planning Lawyer Talks About the Issues Related to Keeping Tax Records

There are many reasons for retaining tax records. They can be a useful guide for business planning, for tracking receipts and expenses, and in cases where the company or shares are being sold to outside parties.

The IRS expects taxpayers to keep records for as long as they are needed to administer any part of the Internal Revenue Code. In other words, if you fail to keep records, and an item in a past return is questioned, you may not have the documentation you need to defend yourself and avoid taxes and penalties. In addition, insurance companies and creditors may wish to see tax returns even after the IRS no longer does.

What is the "Period of Limitations" for a Tax Return?

Generally, you must keep records that support income and deductions for a tax return until the "period of limitations" for that return elapses. This is the period during which you can still amend your return to get a refund or credit and during which the IRS can still assess more tax. It varies depending on the circumstances surrounding each return.

  • If you owe additional tax, but you haven't seriously underpaid, committed fraud, or failed to file a return, the period is 3 years from the date taxes were filed.
  • If you failed to report income that you should have reported, in excess of 25% of the gross income that you did report, the period is 6 years.
  • If you filed a claim for credit or refund after you filed your return, the period is the later of 3 years after the return was filed or 2 years after tax was paid.
  • If you filed a claim for a loss from worthless securities or a bad debt deduction, the period is 7 years.
  • If you filed a fraudulent return or failed to file a return, the period is unlimited.

Note: Returns filed before taxes are due are treated as though they were filed on the due date.

Other Periods of Limitations

Additionally, if you are an employer, you must keep employee tax records for at least 4 years after the later of the date the tax becomes due or the date it is paid.

For assets, you should keep records until the period of limitations elapses for the year in which you sell the property in a taxable transaction. You will need records to compute depreciation, amortization, or depletion deductions and to add up your basis in the property for purposes of calculating gain or loss. A business law attorney experienced in tax matters can further guide you in relation to your specific situation


Monday, October 27, 2014

Financing and Growing Your Small Business Through Crowdfunding

What is crowdfunding? Part social networking and part capital accumulation, crowdfunding is simply the collective cooperation, attention and trust by people who network and pool their financial resources together to support efforts initiated by others.


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Monday, September 16, 2013

A Simple Will Is Not Enough

A Minnesota Estate Planning Attorney Explains Why You Need to do More Than Draft a Will

A basic last will and testament cannot accomplish every goal of estate planning; in fact, it often cannot even accomplish the most common goals.  This fact often surprises people who are going through the estate planning process for the first time.  In addition to a last will and testament, there are other important planning tools which are necessary to ensure your estate planning wishes are honored.

Beneficiary Designations
Do you have a pension plan, 401(k), life insurance, a bank account with a pay-on-death directive, or investments in transfer-on-death (TOD) form?

When you established each of these accounts, you designated at least one beneficiary of the account in the event of your death.  You cannot use your will to change or override the beneficiary designations of such accounts.  Instead, you must change them directly with the bank or company that holds the account.

Special Needs Trusts
Do you have a child or other beneficiary with special needs?

Leaving money directly to a beneficiary who has long-term special medical needs may threaten his or her ability to qualify for government benefits and may also create an unnecessary tax burden.  A simple vehicle called a special needs trust is a more effective way to care for an adult child with special needs after your death.

Conditional Giving with Living or Testamentary Trusts
Do you want to place conditions on some of your bequests?

If you want your children or other beneficiaries to receive an inheritance only if they meet or continually meet certain prerequisites, you must utilize a trust, either one established during your lifetime (living trust) or one created through instructions provided in a will (testamentary trust).

Estate Tax Planning
Do you expect your estate to owe estate taxes?

A basic will cannot help you lower the estate tax burden on your assets after death.  If you think your estate will be liable to pay taxes, you can take steps during your lifetime to minimize that burden on your beneficiaries.  Certain trusts operate to minimize estate taxes, and you may choose to make some gifts during your lifetime for tax-related reasons.  

Joint Tenancy with Right of Survivorship
Do you own a house with someone “in joint tenancy”?

“Joint tenancy” is the most common form of house ownership with a spouse.  This form of ownership is also known as “joint tenancy with right of survivorship,” “tenancy in the entirety,” or “community property with right of survivorship.”  When you die, your ownership share in the house passes directly to your spouse (or the other co-owner).  A provision in your will bequeathing your ownership share to a third party will not have any effect.


Monday, April 15, 2013

Which Business Structure is Right for You?

Minneapolis Small Business Attorney Explains the Different Types of Business Entities

Which entity is best for your business depends on many factors, and the decision can have a significant impact on both profitability and asset protection afforded to its owners. Below is an overview of the most common business structures.

Sole Proprietorship
The sole proprietorship is the simplest and least regulated of all business structures. For legal and tax purposes, the sole proprietorship’s owner and the business are one and the same. The liabilities of the business are personal to the owner, and the business terminates when the owner dies. On the other hand, all of the profits are also personal to the owner and the sole owner has full control of the business.

General Partnership
A partnership consists of two or more persons who agree to share profits and losses. It is simple to establish and maintain; no formal, written document is required in order to create a partnership. If no formal agreement is signed, the partnership will be subject to state laws governing partnerships. However, to clarify the rights and responsibilities of each partner, and to be certain of the tax status of the partnership, it is important to have a written partnership agreement.

Each partner’s personal assets are at risk. Any partner may obligate the partnership, and each individual partner is liable for all of the debts of the partnership. General partners also face potential personal legal liability for the negligence of another partner.

Limited Partnership
A limited partnership is similar to a general partnership, but has two types of partners: general partners and limited partners. General partners have broad powers to obligate the partnership (as in a general partnership), and are personally liable for the debts of the partnership. If there is more than one general partner, each of them is liable for the acts of the remaining general partners. Limited partners, however, are “limited” to their contribution of capital to the business, and must not become actively involved in running the company. As with a general partnership, limited partnerships are flow-through tax entities.

Limited Liability Company (LLC)
The LLC is a hybrid type of business structure. An LLC consists of one or more owners (“members”) who actively manage the company’s business affairs. The LLC contains elements of both a traditional partnership and a corporation, offering the liability protection of a corporation, with the tax structure of a sole proprietorship (if it has only one member), or a partnership (if the LLC has two or more members). Its important to note that in certain states, single-member LLCs are not afforded limited liability protection.

Corporation
Corporations are more complex than either a sole proprietorship or partnership and are subject to more state regulations regarding their formation and operation. There are two basic types of corporations:  C-corporations and S-corporations. There are significant differences in the tax treatment of these two types of corporations, however, they are both generally organized and operated in a similar manner.

Technical formalities must be strictly observed in order to reap the benefits of corporate existence. For this reason, there is an additional burden of detailed recordkeeping. Corporate decisions must be documented in writing. Corporate meetings, both at the shareholder and director levels, must be formally documented.

Corporations limit the owners’ personal liability for company debts. Depending on your situation, there may be significant tax advantages to incorporating.


Tuesday, April 2, 2013

Should I Incorporate My Business?

Minneapolis small business attorney discuss the pros and cons of incorporating your business


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Tuesday, March 26, 2013

Which Business Structure is Right for You?

Minneapolis small business attorney explains the different business entities


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Friday, March 22, 2013

Estate Planning Lessons, Part 3: The Family Business

This is a continuation of the series I've been writing on the estate planning lessons taught to me by the recent deaths in my own family.  My father was a dreamer. He left a job with a large company here to follow his dream of having his own business.  He founded that business over 23 years ago and devoted most of his energy to keeping it alive and then to helping it grow.

Upon his death, I learned that the only asset listed solely in his name were the shares of his stock in the company. Further, he had a will that was over 15 years old. I'm not sure that his estate planning lawyer knew about the stock in the company and it doesn't matter now. It has created an estate administration nightmare for our family because his assets were to be divided equally between his spouse and a family trust. What's wrong with that?

1.  They did not want a trust once the kids reached 23 but the will doesn't contain language to that effect.

2.  That tax status of the company is in jeopardy if a trust holds it's stock. Luckily, such events were anticipated and we have a 2-year grace period to decide what to do with those shares before we have issues with the IRS.

3.  The trustee must jump through additional hoops to get the shares and/or dividends from last year to the "new beneficiary" (i.e. the family trust).

All of these issues could have been resolved with careful planning and some knowledge of my father's specific situation and a follow up to see if things had changed.

It is important that you work with an attorney who will take the time to sit and talk through what you want for your family - now and in the future - so your family can avoid these types of headaches later.


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