Monday, June 08, 2015
A Minneapolis Estate Planning Attorney Explains Why You Should Add Your Spouse to the Deed to Your House
A Minneapolis Estate Planning Attorney Explains the Pros of Adding Your Spouse to the Deed to Your House
Many people erroneously assume that when one spouse dies, the other spouse receives all of the remaining assets; this is often not true and frequently results in unintentional disinheritance of the surviving spouse.
In cases where a couple shares a home but only one spouse’s name is on it, the home will not automatically pass to the surviving pass, if his or her name is not on the title. Take, for example, a case of a husband and wife where the husband purchased a home prior to his marriage, and consequently only his name is on the title (although both parties resided there, and shared expenses, during the marriage). Should the husband pass away before his wife, the home will not automatically pass to her by “right of survivorship”. Instead, it will become part of his probate estate.
This means that there will need to be a court probate case opened and a personal representative (executor) appointed. If the husband had a will, this would be the person he nominated in his will to carry out his instructions regarding disposition of the assets. If he did not have a will, Minnesota probate law states who has priority to serve as personal representative AND inherit the assets.
Take our above example; if the husband died without a will, Minnesota probate law determines who is entitled to the home. Under Minnesota law, if the husband in our example had children, even if they are the children from the current marriage, the surviving spouse is only entitled to a life estate in the home. The “remainder interest” goes to the kids. If this is a second marriage, children from the prior marriage may be entitled to more of the estate. A life estate with a remainder interest means the surviving spouse has strict limitations on what she can do with the home. For instance, she can’t sell the home.
I am currently handling several probate matters where the surviving spouse was not on the house deed.
Laws of inheritance are complex, and without proper planning, surviving loved ones may be subjected to unintended expense, delays and legal hardships. If you share a residence with a significant other or spouse, you should consult with an attorney to determine the best course of action after taking into account your unique personal situation and goals. There may be simple ways to ensure your wishes are carried out and avoid having to probate your spouse’s estate at death.
Contact a Minnesota Estate Planning Lawyer today to assist with adding your spouse to the deed to your home.
Monday, June 01, 2015
What [Not] To Do After a Death: Seven things personal representatives should never do
A Minnesota Probate Lawyer Cautions Against Certain Actions When You Act as a Personal Representative (Executor)
1. NEVER distribute estate assets until there has been a full assessment of potential claims against the estate.
Minnesota statutes require that probates remain open for at least four months. This gives creditors adequate time to notify the personal representative of potential claims. Distributing assets before the expiration of this four-month creditors’ claims period opens the personal representative to liability if there is not enough money to pay the claims.
2. NEVER use the estate’s funds for personal expenses.
The personal representative has a duty to act in the best interests of the estate. “Borrowing” the estate’s funds or misappropriating the funds is the same as stealing someone else’s money. It’s better to start clean and immediately open an estate bank account and run all the estate money through it.
3. NEVER neglect tax issues.
Ordinarily it is the responsibility of the personal representative to file the estate’s tax returns. Failure to do so could cause penalties and expose the personal representative to liability.
4. NEVER ignore a court order.
As a condition to being appointed, the personal representative agrees to submit to the jurisdiction of the court. This means obeying court orders and local rules and following Minnesota probate statutes. Disobeying the court could result in personal liability against the personal representative, or worse, the court ordering the personal representative to appear before it to explain why you disobeyed the court. It is within the court’s power order jail time or a fine for a personal representative who disobeys a court order.
5. NEVER distribute the last of the funds in the estate until a full final accounting has been done and all debts paid. I handled a probate where the only asset was the decedent’s home. The home was sold and a check issued to each beneficiary for the full amount of the sale price. At the end of the probate, the personal representative did not have enough cash on had to reimburse himself the full amount of legal fees paid to handle the probate.
It’s much more difficult (almost impossible) to get money back from someone once it’s been paid out. Far easier,
6. NEVER ignore a claim.
Minnesota probate law requires creditors to submit a claim against the estate in order to get paid. The creditors will notify the personal representative of potential claims. The personal representative should carefully review each claim. If he/she doesn’t think it’s legitimate (or owed) the PR MUST notify the creditor of the disallowance of the claim within 2 months of receipt of the claim.
I had a client who ignored a claim (despite my repeated warnings) and the two months passed without him filing a notice of disallowance. He then asked if he could dispute the claim. Unfortunately, it was too late to dispute the claim even though he had a good case for disallowance. He was then forced to work with the creditor to settle the claim.
I know it’s a difficult time working through a probate after the death of a loved one, but please don’t simply ignore issues. It’s my job to help you tackle these problems, so work with me.
7. NEVER proceed without counsel.
Minnesota’s probate laws are complex even for seasoned attorneys. Making mistakes can be costly to the estate and can even cause the personal representative to become personally liable for the mistakes. Even before a probate proceeding is commenced, there are many issues that need to be dealt with, including how to handle creditor claims, deciding on the right place to open the probate, choosing the appropriate type of probate proceeding, and interpreting the decedent’s Will correctly in light of Minnesota probate law.
Because of the risks involved, probate is not the kind of legal proceeding that should be done “on the cheap.” I have met with numerous personal representatives who originally thought they could handle it on their own then hit a wall and had to seek immediate help to fix something. You should work with an experienced Minnesota probate lawyer to ensure you don’t make a costly mistake.
Hire a knowledgeable and experienced Minnesota probate attorney before you start a probate to be sure it’s handled properly from the very beginning.
Download a copy of this document: Five Things Personal Representatives Should Never Do.
Monday, May 25, 2015
What’s Involved in Serving as a Personal Representative in a Minnesota Probate?
A Minneapolis Probate Lawyer Explains Some of the Tasks Associated With Acting as a Personal Representative for an Estate
The personal representative is the person designated in a Will as the individual who is responsible for performing a number of tasks necessary to wind down the decedent’s affairs. [While a will merely nominates someone to act as personal representative subject to approval by the court, this post uses the term “personal representative” to refer both to the nominated and appointed personal representative.] Generally, the personal representative’s responsibilities involve taking charge of the deceased person’s assets, notifying beneficiaries and creditors, paying the estate’s debts and distributing the property to the beneficiaries. The personal representative may also be a beneficiary of the Will, though he or she must treat all beneficiaries fairly and in accordance with the provisions of the Will.
The first priority for a personal representative is to find out if the deceased had a valid Will. Then the personal representative should locate the original Will. The personal representative should also be sure to order certified copies of the Death Certificate if that hasn’t already been done. The personal representative will be responsible for notifying all persons who have an interest in the estate, including those who are named as beneficiaries in the Will and any known creditors. A list of all assets must be compiled, including value at the date of death.
The personal representative must take steps to secure all assets, whether by taking possession of them, or by obtaining adequate insurance. Assets of the estate include all real and personal property owned by the decedent; overlooked assets sometimes include stocks, bonds, pension funds, bank accounts, safety deposit boxes, annuity payments, holiday pay, and work-related life insurance or survivor benefits. The personal representative must also compile a list of the decedent’s debts, including, credit card accounts, loan payments, mortgages, home utilities, tax arrears, alimony and outstanding leases.
Whether the Will must be probated depends on a variety of factors, including size of the estate and how the decedent’s assets were titled. An experienced probate or estate planning attorney can help determine whether probate is required, and assist with carrying out the personal representative’s duties. If the estate must go through probate, the personal representative must file the appropriate documents with the probate court in order to be appointed legal representative. Upon approval of the appointment, the court will issue a document called Letters Testamentary authorizing the personal representative to act on behalf of the estate to pay all of the decedent’s outstanding debts, provided there are sufficient assets in the estate. After debts have been paid, the personal representative must distribute the remaining real and personal property to the beneficiaries, in accordance with the wishes set forth in the Will. Because the personal representative is accountable to the beneficiaries of the estate, it is extremely important to keep complete, accurate records of all expenditures, correspondence, asset distribution, and filings with the court and government agencies.
The personal representative is also responsible for filing all tax returns for the deceased person including federal and state income tax returns and estate tax filings, if applicable. Please note that Minnesota law entitles a personal representative to reasonable compensation for his or her services. Unfortunately, there is no guidance offered on the appropriate amount of this fee so it’s a good idea to discuss compensation with other family members to avoid later disputes. I find it helpful to spell out the compensation in the will so that others know and understand that the deceased intended to offer payment to the personal representative.
Monday, May 18, 2015
Expenses of the Estate, Part IV: Fees Received as Personal Representative (Executor) are Taxable!
A Minnesota Probate Attorney Explains That Fees Received for Acting as a Personal Representative (Executor) Are Taxable
Serving as a personal representative takes a lot of time. As a result, some personal representatives consider charging the estate for their time as permitted under Minnesota law.
As appealing as that can be, the attorney should help the personal representative consider all the consequences of that decision. One consequence that is often overlooked is that fees paid to the personal representative are taxable and must be included in their gross income. As a result, the estate may be required to generate a 1099.
Contact a Minnesota Probate Lawyer to discuss your rights and obligations as executor.
Monday, May 11, 2015
Expenses of the Estate, Part III: D0 I Get Paid To Act As Personal Representative (Executor)?
Minnesota Probate Attorney Explains Compensation for a Personal Representative
You are nominated as a personal representative to handle someone’s estate. Can you get paid for handling these matters? In a word, yes.
Your fee is dictated by Minnesota probate law. Unfortunately, Minnesota law doesn’t provide much guidance as the probate law simply says, “[a] personal representative is entitled to reasonable compensation for services.”
What does that mean?
It’s not really clear. The courts have generally stated that they know an unreasonable fee when they see one. But, they have failed to provide guidance on what constitutes a reasonable fee.
A personal representative is always entitled to be reimbursed for any expenses related to the probate. For instance, paying for filing fees, copies of the death certificate, publishing fees, attorney’s fees, accountant fees etc.…
I often suggest to clients that they state the fee they want to get up front to the rest of the family so there is no argument later. This can be a flat amount of the estate ($5,000) or an hourly fee and the PR can simply track their time spent working on the probate.
Are fees received for acting as personal representative taxable? See the next post for the answer.
Work with a Minnesota probate lawyer to ensure that you are getting paid a fair amount for the work you put in to handling an estate.
Monday, May 04, 2015
The Expenses of Probate, Part II: What Are The Fees for Handling an Estate (Probate)?
A Minneapolis Probate Attorney Explains the Fees Associated with Handling a Probate
In Part I of this series, I explained who is responsible for paying the fees to start a probate. This post discusses the different types of fees involved.
• Court Fees
These fees are dictated by Minnesota probate law and cover the court filing fee, publishing and copy fees. In Minnesota, this generally amounts to about $500-$1000.
• Attorney's Fees
Naturally, these fees vary by attorney. Be sure to ask the Minnesota probate lawyer about these fees before signing anything. At Unique Estate Law, we list our fees up front AND provide our probate clients with a knowledgeable quote based on what we think will be involved in handling the estate.
• Accounting Fees
These fees will vary depending upon the overall value of the estate and the type of assets owned. For instance, a small estate that nonetheless owns 25 different stocks and bonds may generate more accounting fees than a larger estate that owns a primary residence, a bank account and a CD. Of course, if the estate is taxable at the state and/or federal level, then the accounting fees may include the preparation and filing of the state and/or federal estate tax returns if the attorney for the estate doesn't prepare and file the returns.
• Appraisal and Business Valuation Fees
These fees will be necessary to determine the date of death values of real estate, personal property (including jewelry, antiques, art work, boats, cars and the like), and business interests. Appraisal fees for personal property can range anywhere from a few hundred to a few thousand dollars, while business valuation fees will run several thousand dollars.
I had a probate client who owned several racehorses. We had to hire someone to conduct an appraisal done of the horses so we could value them for the probate. The Personal Representative was lucky in that case as his father had opened a joint bank account and deposited funds for the sole purpose of funding probate fees. So, he did not need to pay for these things out of his own pocket and then wait to get reimbursed later.
• Bond Fees
If you don't have a Last Will and Testament that waives the posting of a bond by your Personal Representative, then before your Personal Representative can be appointed he or she may need to pay for and post a bond in an amount determined by the probate judge. I've also run into situations where the probate judge has required a bond to be posted even though the Last Will and Testament waived the posting of a bond simply because minor children - or charitable - beneficiaries were involved.
• Miscellaneous Fees
There are almost always other fees involved in a probate. The following are a few examples of such fees:
- Postage to mail notices and documents to interested persons or governmental authorities
- Insuring and storing personal property;
- Shipping personal property;
- Moving personal property
- Paying the decedent’s mortgage
- Paying for property/casualty insurance on a residence
- Lawn care services
- House repairs (I had a client who had to pay to fix an ice dam on his father’s home during probate)
- Car insurance
As you can see, there are many fees involved in handling a probate. These fees can amount to several thousand dollars just to get assets/items to the beneficiaries. There are ways around paying the fees for probate. While that discussion is beyond the scope of this post, I do discuss it in other posts.
Contact a Minneapolis probate lawyer now to ask about the fees involved in probate.
I’m the personal representative? Do I get paid for that? See Part III for the answer to this question.
Monday, April 27, 2015
The Expenses of Probate, PART I: Who Pays The Fees For A Probate When Someone Dies?
Minnesota Probate Lawyer Explains Who Is Responsible for Paying Probate Fees
Recently, a client came to me to assist her with handling her mother’s estate. Her mother was sick for many years and had taken the time to plan as orderly a transition as possible after her death. She had a will drafted by an attorney and discussed her wishes with her relatives. The main asset was a money market account that would be paid out according to the will.
At our first meeting, I explained how probate works and the fees involved. She then asked the inevitable question of who pays for the probate. I explained that the estate is responsible for paying any fees associated with probate. “Well, there is money in an account, but how do I get that money out?” OR “The bank told me I can’t get the money until the court appoints me as personal representative. How do I pay the fees now?” As a Minnesota probate lawyer, I hear this question a lot.
And here is the circular problem with paying for probate. The personal representative needs to pay to open up a probate, but can’t get the money until the probate is done. Unfortunately, this means that the personal representative must front the money for working through the probate until he/she is officially appointed by the court and can then access the money that has been frozen since the decedent died.
Contact a Minnesota probate attorney now to ask about the process of opening a probate.
What are the fees involved with probate? Read Part II of this series to find out.
Wednesday, April 15, 2015
An executor's fee is the amount charged by the person who has been appointed as the executor of the probate estate for handling all of the necessary steps in the probate administration. Therefore, if you have been appointed an executor of someone’s estate, you might be entitled to a fee for your services. This fee could be based upon a variety of factors and some of those factors may be dependent upon state, or even local, law.
General Duties of an Executor
- Securing the decedent's home (changing locks, etc.)
- Identifying and collecting all bank accounts, investment accounts, stocks, bonds and mutual funds
- Having all real estate appraised; having all tangible personal property appraised
- Paying all of the decedent’s debts and final expenses
- Making sure all income and estate tax returns are prepared, filed and any taxes paid
- Collecting all life insurance proceeds and retirement account assets
- Accounting for all actions; and making distributions of the estate to the beneficiaries or heirs.
This list is not all-inclusive and depending upon the particular estate more, or less, steps may be needed.
As you can see, there is a lot of work (and legal liability) involved in being the executor of an estate. Typically the executor would keep track of his or her time and a reasonable hourly rate would be used. Other times, an executor could charge based upon some percent of the value of the estate assets. What an executor may charge, and how an executor can charge, may be governed by state law or even a local court's rules. You also asked whether the deceased can make you agree not to take a fee. The decedent can put in his or her will that the executor should serve without compensation but the named executor is not obligated to take the job. He or she could simply decline to serve. If no one will serve without taking a fee, and if the decedents will states the executor must serve without a fee, a petition could be filed with the court asking them to approve a fee even if the will says otherwise. Notice should be given to all interested parties such as all beneficiaries.
If you have been appointed an executor or have any other probate or estate planning issues, contact us for a consultation today.
Monday, February 23, 2015
A Discussion of Wills, Part 3: Beware of “Simple” Estate Plans
“I just need a simple will.” It’s a phrase I hear at least once a week. What could be wrong with that? This post explains the many common situations in which a "simple will" may not be a good fit for your family tells the cautionary tale of one family who relied on a will purchased at a stationary store.Read more . . .
Monday, November 24, 2014
What is a Successor Trustee
A Minneapolis Estate Planning Lawyer Defines a Successor Trustee and Explains Why You Should Have One
You did everything right. You sat down with a lawyer, paid her to draft your estate plan, created a living trust and named each other as trustees. But, the unthinkable happened and your spouse died before you did. You were so sure it would be you first. Your lawyer now explains that you are the successor trustee and that you must now administer your spouse's trust. What does she mean by a successor trustee? Read more . . .
Monday, November 17, 2014
What To Do After Death, Part I
Minneapolis Probate Lawyer: What is Probate?
I often explain to people that I am a "probate lawyer" only to be met with a blank stare. Occasionally, the statement "I don't know what that means" will accompany the blank stare. So, I decided to draft a series of posts under the "Probate" heading that will offer some general explanations and definitions. Hopefully, this will offer some guidance to those suffering a loss who aren't sure of their next steps.Read more . . .
From within Hennepin County Unique Estate Law represents estate planning and elder law clients throughout Minnesota, including Minneapolis, Edina, Bloomington, St. Louis Park, Minnetonka, Plymouth, Wayzata, Maple Grove, St. Paul, and Brooklyn Park. The Minnesota law firm of Unique Estate Law focuses on all aspects of estate planning, including specialized wills, trusts, powers of attorney and medical directives for married couples, young families, blended families, single parents, gay families and those going through a divorce. Unique Estate Law also handles probate administration, asset protection, Medical Assistance planning, elder law, business succession planning, adoptions and cabin planning.