Monday, May 13, 2013
Overview: Buy-Sell Agreements and Your Small Business
Minneapolis Business Lawyer Explains Why Your Small Business Needs a Buy-Sell Agreement
If you co-own a business, you need a buy-sell agreement. Also called a buyout agreement, this document is essentially the business world’s equivalent of a prenup. An effective buy-sell agreement helps prevent conflict between the company’s owners, while also preserving the company’s closely held status. Any business with more than one owner should address this issue upfront, before problems arise.
With a proper buy-sell agreement, all business owners are protected in the event one of the owners wishes to leave the company. The buy-sell agreement establishes clear procedures that must be followed if an owner retires, sells his or her shares, divorces his or her spouse, becomes disabled, or dies. The agreement will establish the price and terms of a buyout, ensuring the company continues in the absence of the departing owner.
A properly drafted buy-sell agreement takes into consideration exactly what the owners wish to happen if one owner departs, whether voluntarily or involuntarily. Do the owners want to permit a new, unknown partner, should the departing owner wish to sell to an uninvolved third party? What happens if an owner’s spouse is involved in the business and that owner gets a divorce or passes away? How are interests valued when a triggering event occurs?
In crafting your buy-sell agreement, consider the following issues:
Triggering Events - What events trigger the provisions of the agreement? These normally include death, disability, bankruptcy, divorce and retirement.
Business Valuation - How will the value of shares being transferred be determined? Owners may determine the value of shares annually, by agreement, appraisal or formula. The agreement may require that the appraisal be performed by a business valuation expert at the time of the triggering event. Some agreements may also include a “shotgun provision” in which one party proposes a price, giving the other party the obligation to accept or counter with a new offer.
Funding - How will the departing owner be paid? Many business owners will obtain insurance coverage, including life, disability, or business continuation insurance on the life or disability of the other owners. With respect to life insurance, the agreement may provide that the company redeem the departing owner’s shares (“redemption”). Alternatively, each of the owners may purchase life insurance on the lives of the other owners to provide the liquidity needed to purchase the departing owner’s shares (“cross purchase agreement”). The agreement may also authorize the company to use it’s cash reserves to buy-out the departing owners.
Wednesday, February 20, 2013
Estate Planning Lessons, Part 2: Marriage Is Not Enough - You Must Get a Financial Power of Attorney Now
This continues my series on lessons I learned in handling the estates of my parents who both passed away last year. This post will discuss reasons why you should plan things now - do not wait!
I am an estate planning attorney with the knowledge and experience to handle complex issues but found myself running around at the last minute to take care of things for my own father. It turns out that my father had never signed a financial power of attorney. What does that mean? It means that his wife was unable to handle simple financial transactions on his behalf while he was in the hospital and unable to do things like go to the bank. But they're married you say. For many financial matters, even a spouse does not have the right to act on your behalf. For instance, a spouse may not deal with anything listed solely in your name. This generally includes such things as your retirmenet plan, stocks or bank accounts.
So, on a Thursday afternoon I was in my office (instead of the hospital) drafting a power of attorney for him to sign so that his wife could take care of some financial matters he thought were crucial in his last few days of life. Then I ran it to the hospital and got it signed and notarized.
You could look at this and note that we were lucky as he was awake, competent and alert enough to know what he wanted done and still capable of signing the Power of Attorney - even one day later and that would not have been the case. Many people simply put it off unti it's too late and the family has to fight to get a conservatorship to be allowed to make decisions they know the loved one would have wanted.
Please plan now so no one is running around trying to get these things done during such a difficult time.
Thursday, February 07, 2013
Estate Planning Lessons, Part 1: Ownership of Property in Another State
As noted in a prior post, the year 2012 was a difficult one for me personally with the loss of both my parents. It has been emotional and trying to deal with the losses and then, on top of that, try to work through their estates with two different sets of family. This is the first post conveying some of the lessons I've learned in my continuing attempt to educate others about the need to work with someone to properly plan your estate.
Even the family of an estate planning attorney can be unprepared for an unexpected event. A week before my father's death I found out that he owned property in North Dakota. It turns out that my great grandfather had land there and divided it up between his children who did the same all the way down the line so that now my siblings and I own a piece of North Dakota land. At least we will own it once we go through the probate process and have the deed changed to our names.
You may think "Well, you're an estate planning attorney so can't you just take care of that?" Unfortunately for us, I can't as I'm not licensed in North Dakota. So, now we will need to hire a North Dakota attorney several thousand dollars to get the property into our names. No, the irony is not lost on me.
So, this post is to urge you to talk to your loved ones about what you own or ask what they may own so that you can properly manage things now before it's too late. If I would have known about the North Dakota property earlier, I would have urged my Dad to get a trust and deed the property into it so that we would now be able to avoid the hassle, expense and pain of going through probate in another state.
Sunday, February 03, 2013
Should You Borrow From Your Retirement Account?
Borrowing from your retirement accounts: Issues to consider
So you have credit card debt, overdue mortgage payments, or suddenly need to buy a new car. We’ve all been there. You need money now, and your retirement accounts continue to climb. Fortunately, many employers allow you to take out loans on these accounts, but should you really begin spending that money before you retire?
On one hand, there are benefits to borrowing from your retirement accounts. You are essentially borrowing your own money, so the payments you make, plus interest, go back into your account. Since it’s your own money, these payments do not affect your credit score, and most 401(k) loans have relatively low interest rates.
However, there are many risks associated with taking money from accounts like your 401(k). It is recommended that you see a financial advisor before making this decision to address the cost and potential ramifications of the loan.
First consider the reason for taking out a loan, and the multiple options that you face. A dire emergency is the only recommended cause for borrowing from these accounts; some plans even require it. If you’re looking to spend the money on something more frivolous, like a family vacation or a new entertainment system, however, you should consider alternate financing options.
The downside to these loans comes in handling the repayment plan. Interest paid to your own account sounds easy enough, but these payments are subject to taxes. Furthermore, once money is borrowed from your retirement account, it is no longer eligible for tax-deferred growth. Payments you make on the loan come from after-tax assets, so the money you repay into your account can end up getting taxed for a second time once you withdraw after retirement.
A standard 401(k) loan allows you to borrow up to half of your balance, with a maximum of $50,000. Normally, you have up to five years to repay the loan. Failure to do so within the five-year period means your loan will be deemed an early withdrawal, and will be subject to taxes as well as a 10% early withdrawal penalty.
If you are looking to borrow money from your retirement accounts, carefully consider your repayment plan in advance. It’s especially important to make certainthat you are secure in your employment; if you leave or lose your job, your loan payments will be due within 90 days. Consider borrowing only if interest on a loan from your retirement plan would be less than that of another loan alternative. A final tip: Continue contributing to your 401(k) while you pay off the loan to lessen the impact on your savings.
Wednesday, January 16, 2013
Common Question Wednesday: Should I Add Another Person (Partner or Child) to the Title of the House
Minneapolis attorney specializing in nontraditional estate planning answers the question of whether an individual should add his/her unmarried partner to the deed to a home
As an estate planning attorney specializing in nontraditional estates, I get a lot of questions specific to situations that may not normally be heard as often by one of my more "traditional estate planning" colleagues. I've decided to begin a new monthly post entitled "Common Question Day" to respond to some of these questions.
First up is the most common question I am asked by unmarried couples and seniors looking to make things easier on loved ones.
QUESTION: SHOULD I ADD SOMEONE TO THE DEED TO MY (OUR) HOUSE?
While I hear this question most often from couples who are not legally married, the answer remains the same for anyone - outside of a legal spouse - considering whether to add another person(s) to a deed to the home. This means that the answer applies to parents considering adding a child, a person wanting to add a sibling or even a friend.
The short answer is that I do NOT recommend adding another person to the title to your home. This is so for the reasons listed below:
1. Lender Consent. If the property is encumbered by a mortgage, the first issue to consider is whether adding another to the deed will violate the terms of your loan documents.
2. Liability and Asset Protection. Joining someone else as a co-owner of your property may expose that property to the claims of your co-owner's creditors.
3. Loss of Control. As the sole owner, you have absolute control over the property. For example, you alone have the right to decide whether to sell it, and at what price, whether to refinance, take out a home equity loan, and what improvements should be made. However, once another person acquires an ownership interest you will also need their consent in all these matters.
4. Gift Tax Consequences. Under the current IRS rules, a person can give away a fixed amount of money or property per person per year ($14,000 in 2013). Any gift exceeding this limit may require the donor to pay gift taxes. If you give an interest to another rather than selling the share at fair market value, it may trigger the requirement to file a gift tax return so you should consult with a tax professional.
5. Capital Gains. A transfer by deed during the donor's lifetime (instead of by a Will upon death) can have other adverse tax consequences. If you leave the land to someone in a Will, the heir receives a "step up" basis. This means that when the heir eventually sells the property, capital gains taxes are computed based on the value of the property at the date of your death--not when you originally purchased the property. Since land usually increases in value over time, the "step up" basis reduces capital gains taxes. However, if you make a gift of that same property during your lifetime, there is no "step up" basis; rather the basis will be the same as yours and can trigger increased taxes.
6. Medicaid Eligibility. Transfers of property may also affect Medicaid eligibility. This topic is much too complex to cover here, but suffice it to say that unless you make the transfer more than five years before filing your Medicaid application, you may be disqualified for Medicaid assistance.
If you are thinking “should I add someone to the deed to my house” please stop and consider the above and speak with an attorney and tax professional before making any changes to the title. An important question is, "What issues do I need to address before deciding whether to add someone to my deed?" It may not be possible to fully resolve all the potential problems associated with co-ownership of property, but a skillful legal professional can at least help avoid unpleasant surprises in the process.
Thursday, December 06, 2012
How To Prepare for a Meeting with an Estate Planning Attorney
Preparing to Meet With an Estate Planning Attorney
A thorough and complete estate plan must take into account a significant amount of information about your assets, your family, your property, and your wishes during and after your life. When you make your first appointment with an estate planning attorney, ask the attorney or the paralegal if they can provide a written list of important information and documents that you should bring to the meeting.
Generally speaking, you should gather the following information before your first appointment with your estate planning lawyer.
List the names, birth dates, death dates, and ages of all immediate family members, specifically current and former spouses, all children and stepchildren, and all grandchildren.
If you have any young or adult children with special needs, gather all information you have about their lifetime financial needs.
For all real property you own or can reasonably expect to acquire, gather the property description, your ownership interest information, the address, market value, any outstanding mortgage balance, and the most recent tax assessment.
For any personal property of value (such as vehicles, jewelry, coins, antiques, stamps, and art), compile a list that includes a description, the physical location of each item, your ownership interest information, the market value, and any liens against the property.
If you have an ownership interest in a business, make sure you have documents showing your ownership interest in the business, the business location, the names and contact information of other owners, and 2-3 years of past profit and loss statements.
Compile a list of all your financial accounts, including: checking accounts, savings accounts, investment accounts, stocks and bonds, and U.S. Treasury notes. If any of these accounts currently have designated beneficiaries, bring that information as well.
Gather all retirement savings information, including 401(k) plans, 403(b) plans, IRAs, life insurance policies, Social Security statements, and pension information. Make sure you have the account names, account numbers, current balances, outstanding loan balances, and currently named beneficiaries.
If any family members owe you debts, compile that information.
Questions to Think About
The following are some of the first questions your estate planning attorney will ask. You are not required to have answers ready for all these questions, but because some of them are complex, it is a good idea to think through these issues before your appointment.
Who will be beneficiaries of your property?
Do you want to bequeath any specific items of property to specific individuals?
Is there anyone you do not want to be a beneficiary of any of your property?
Do you plan to make any bequests to any nonprofit organizations – university, church, charity, or other organization?
Do you know who you want to act as executor of your will?
Do you know who you want to act as trustee of any trusts you establish?
If you have minor children, who do you want to appoint as guardian?
Do you want to make arrangements for your health and financial well-being in the event you become unable to make decisions for yourself?
Do you have specific wishes for your funeral?
Are you a registered organ donor?
During your initial consultation, your estate planning attorney will review your family and financial situation, discuss your wishes, answer your questions and suggest strategies to protect your family, wealth and legacy. It is my practice at this point to also provide you with a flat-fee quote for the best plan to fit the needs of your family. This fee includes all of the listed documents and any communications/meetings with me. It is important to me that you know the exact fee for your custom-drafted plan up front so there are no surprises later!
Call now to set up your initial consultation.
Monday, November 26, 2012
Estate Planning: Leaving Assets to a ‘Troubled’ Heir
A Minnesota Estate Planning Attorney Discusses Complex Estate Planning Techniques
If you have a child who is addicted to drugs or alcohol, or who is financially irresponsible, you already know the heartbreak associated with trying to help that child make healthy decisions. Perhaps your other adult children are living independent lives, but this child still turns to you to bail him out – either figuratively or literally – of trouble.
If these are your circumstances, you are probably already worrying about how to continue to help your child once you are gone. You predict that your child will misuse any lump sum of money left to him or her via your will. You don’t want to completely cut this child out of your estate plan, but at the same time, you don’t want to enable destructive behavior or throw good money after bad.
Trusts are an estate planning tool you can use to provide an inheritance to a worrisome heir while maintaining control over how, when, where, and why the heir accesses the funds. This type of trust is sometimes called a spendthrift trust.
As with all trusts, you designate a trustee who controls the funds that will be left to the heir. This trustee can be an independent third party (there are companies that specialize in this type of work) or a member of the family. It is often wise to opt for a third party as a trustee, to prevent accusations among family members about favoritism.
The trust can specify the exact circumstances under which money will be disbursed to the heir. Or, more simply, the trust can specify that the trustee has complete and sole discretion to disburse funds when the heir applies for money. Most parents in these circumstances discover that they wish to impose their own incentives and restrictions, rather than rely on the judgment of an unknown third party.
The types of conditions or incentives that can be used with a trust include:
Drug or alcohol testing before funds are released
Payments directly to landlords, colleges, etc., rather than payment to the heir
Disbursement of a specified lump sum if the heir graduates from university or keeps the same job for a certain time period
Payment only to a drug or alcohol rehab center if the child is in an active period of addiction
Disbursement of a lump sum if the child remains drug free
Payments that match the child’s earned income
If you are considering writing this type of complex trust, it is advisable to seek assistance from a qualified and experienced estate planning attorney who can help you devise a plan that best accomplishes your wishes with respect to your child.
Monday, November 26, 2012
The ‘Sandwich Generation’ – Taking Care of Your Kids While Taking Care of Your Parents
The ‘Sandwich Generation’ – Taking Care of Your Kids While Taking Care of Your Parents
“The sandwich generation” is the term given to adults who are raising children and simultaneously caring for elderly or infirm parents. Your children are one piece of “bread,” your parents are the other piece of “bread,” and you are “sandwiched” into the middle.
Caring for parents at the same time as you care for your children, your spouse and your job is exhausting and will stretch every resource you have. And what about caring for yourself? Not surprisingly, most sandwich generation caregivers let self-care fall to the bottom of the priorities list which may impair your ability to care for others.
Following are several tips for sandwich generation caregivers.
Hold an all-family meeting regarding your parents. Involve your parents, your parents’ siblings, and your own siblings in a detailed conversation about the present and future. If you can, make joint decisions about issues like who can physically care for your parents, who can contribute financially and how much, and who should have legal authority over your parents’ finances and health care decisions if they become unable to make decisions for themselves. Your parents need to share all their financial and health care information with you in order for the family to make informed decisions. Once you have that information, you can make a long-term financial plan.
Hold another all-family meeting with your children and your parents. If you are physically or financially taking care of your parents, talk about this honestly with your children. Involve your parents in the conversation as well. Talk – in an age-appropriate way – about the changes that your children will experience, both positive and challenging.
Prioritize privacy. With multiple family members living under one roof, privacy – for children, parents, and grandparents – is a must. If it is not be feasible for every family member to have his or her own room, then find other ways to give everyone some guaranteed privacy. “The living room is just for Grandma and Grandpa after dinner.” “Our teenage daughter gets the downstairs bathroom for as long as she needs in the mornings.”
Make family plans. There are joys associated with having three generations under one roof. Make the effort to get everyone together for outings and meals. Perhaps each generation can choose an outing once a month.
Make a financial plan, and don’t forget yourself. Are your children headed to college? Are you hoping to move your parents into an assisted living facility? How does your retirement fund look? If you are caring for your parents, your financial plan will almost certainly have to be revised. Don’t leave yourself and your spouse out of the equation. Make sure to set aside some funds for your own retirement while saving for college and elder health care.
Revise your estate plan documents as necessary. If you had named your parents guardians of your children in case of your death, you may need to find other guardians. You may need to set up trusts for your parents as well as for your children. If your parent was your power of attorney, you may have to designate a different person to act on your behalf.
Seek out and accept help. Help for the elderly is well organized in the United States. Here are a few governmental and nonprofit resources:
www.benefitscheckup.org – Hosted by the National Council on Aging, this website is a one-stop shop for determining which federal, state and local benefits your parents may qualify for
www.eldercare.gov – Sponsored by the U.S. Administration on Aging
www.caremanager.org -- National Association of Professional Geriatric Care Managers
www.nadsa.org – National Adult Day Services Association
Monday, November 05, 2012
Minnesota Transfer on Death Deed, Part 4:Can You Cancel a Transfer on Death Deed After It's Filed?
In this series of posts, we've been discussing transferring a home via a transfer on death deed. You own property in your name alone and want to be sure that it goes to the beneficiary of your choice without the expense and delay of probate. So, after reading these informative blog posts, you decide to use a Transfer on Death Deed (“TODD”) to achieve this purpose.
But what happens if you change your mind after you have executed and filed the deed with the county? Can you cancel or change the TODD?
Yes. The Deed does not do anything to your rights over the property during your lifetime. It only takes affect upon your death. Therefore, nothing is set in stone until after death. You may, at any time, change the beneficiary or cancel the deed altogether. But, you MUST file the transfer on death deed revocation prior to your death.
Monday, October 29, 2012
Minnesota Transfer on Death Deed, Part 3: How Do You Get One?
Twin Cities Estate Planning Attorney Explains the Steps Necessary to Use a Minnesota Transfer on Death Deed
If you are a property owner and wish to use a transfer on death deed (“TODD”) to transfer that property without the hassle of probate, you must
Choose a beneficiary or beneficiaries
Execute a valid deed that expressly states that it is effective only upon your death
Record the deed in the county in which the property is located prior to your death.
Pay the filing fee.
A few things to note. If the property is jointly owned then all owners must sign the deed. And as #3 above states, it is not enough to execute the deed - you must also record it with the proper county before your death.
Monday, October 22, 2012
Minnesota Transfer on Death Deed, Part 2: Why Should I Get One?
A Minneapolis Attorney Explains How to Get a Valid Transfer on Death Deed
In my series on the use of the Minnesota Transfer on Death Deed, I've been explaining the benefits of using the TODD. It is a simple - and relatively inexpensive - process to draft and record a transfer on death deed. If you are still asking "Why should I get one?" let me provide you with a couple of real world examples of the use of a Transfer on Death Deed.
I have a gay couple, Jeff and Nathan, as clients who have been together for 5 years and came to see me about protecting each other in case of tragedy. Jeff owns their home alone as he bought it before he got together with Nathan. Jeff is, of course, concerned that Nathan get the home if anything happens to him.
Can't Jeff Just Add Nathan to the Title of the Home?
Yes. This is a common answer given to people like Jeff, especially by nonlawyer advisors. BUT JEFF MUST EXERCISE CAUTION: If Jeff puts Nathan on the deed to the home, he has given him a gift, which can have current tax implications. Also, Nathan loses the beneficial tax treatment - called a "step up" - received upon inheriting an asset. The tax imlications of this method are covered in other posts but suffice it to say that gifting the home could cause Nathan and Jeff money and hassle.
Another issue no client ever wants to consider? What if Jeff and Nathan break up? Now they still jointly own the home so must deal with it in their dissolution. Does one buy the other out or are they forced to sell the home and split the proceeds?
What about a will?
But, if Jeff merely states in his will that Nathan will get the home, Nathan will be forced to incur the expense, and suffer the delay, of going through the probate process.
What is the solution?
You guessed it. By properly executing and filing a Minnesota Transfer on Death Deed, Jeff can state that, upon his death, the home is to go outright to Nathan. Because the transfer does not happen until after Jeff's death, there is no gift during his life so no worries about gift tax issues. And, Nathan inherits the home so receives the full benefit of the step up in basis for the value of the home - allowing him to avoid increase captial gains taxes. Last, Nathan will not need to open the probate to get the deed to their home in his own name. Again, the Transfer on Death Deed will save Jeff and Nathan hassle and money both during life and after death.
Susan and Emily have been together for together for 15 years and own their home jointly. Susan has a 22-year-old daughter, Stephanie, from a prior relationship and whom Emily has not adopted. They are first concerned with caring for each other if someone happens to one of them. Because the home is jointly owned, if one dies, the other will become the full owner. But, what happens at the death of both of them? Who will get the home?
Because they've been together so long, Emily feels that Stephanie is like a daughter to her as well. She never adopted her because there is still another parent in the picture. But, it is important to her that their home eventually go to Stephanie. Of course, Susan agrees with that so how do we get the home to Stephanie at the death of both clients?
Use a Will?
This solution creates the same issues as in hypothetical #1. But, it also has another one. Susan can't use the will to state what will happen to the home at her death as she owns it jointly with Emily. And her will can't really control what happens to her property after it's been inherited by another, in this case Emily.
Does a Transfer on Death Deed Help?
Somewhat. It will avoid an issue if, upon Susan's death, Emily neglects to draft a will and her estate is transferred through the laws of intestacy (no will). Because Stephanie is not legally related to Emily, she will not inherit through intestacy. It will also help if Emily's will leaves everything to her sister as a Transfer on Death Deed takes priority over the will so Emily will still get the house.
But, it does not help if Susan dies and Emily decides to revoke the Transfer on Death Deed. The TODD's are fully revokable by the suriving grantor even for property owned jointly where both owners executed and filed a valid deed prior to the death of the first owner.
So, the Transfer on Death Deed doesn not provide a guarantee that the home will go to Stephanie should Susan die first.
If that is a concern, perhaps the clients should discuss getting a trust.
These are just a couple of examples where a Transfer on Death Deed may provide a fast and inexpensive solution to two different issues related to a personal residence. The next post will provide the short list of requirements to comply with the law on getting a Minnesota Transfer on Death Deed.
From within Hennepin County Unique Estate Law represents estate planning and elder law clients throughout Minnesota, including Minneapolis, Edina, Bloomington, St. Louis Park, Minnetonka, Plymouth, Wayzata, Maple Grove, St. Paul, and Brooklyn Park. The Minnesota law firm of Unique Estate Law focuses on all aspects of estate planning, including specialized wills, trusts, powers of attorney and medical directives for married couples, young families, blended families, single parents, gay families and those going through a divorce. Unique Estate Law also handles probate administration, asset protection, Medical Assistance planning, elder law, business succession planning, adoptions and cabin planning.