Minneapolis Estate Planning and Probate Lawyer Blog
Tuesday, April 28, 2015
Is There Anyway a Disinherited Child Could Receive an Inheritance From an Estate?
If your estate plan and related documents are properly and carefully drafted, it is highly unlikely that the court will disregard your wishes and award the excluded child an inheritance. As unlikely as it may be, there are certain situations where this child could end up receiving an inheritance depending upon a variety of factors.
To understand how a disinherited child could benefit, you must understand how assets pass after death. How a particular asset passes at death depends upon the type of asset and how it is titled. For example, a jointly titled asset will pass to the surviving joint owner regardless of what a will or a trust says. So, in the unlikely event that the disinherited child was a joint owner, that child would still inherit the asset because of how it was titled.
Similarly, if you left that disinherited child as a named beneficiary on a life insurance policy or retirement plan asset, such as an IRA or 401k, that child would still receive some of the benefits as the named beneficiary even if your will stated they were to take nothing. Another way such a "disinherited" child might receive a benefit is if all other named beneficiaries died before you.
So, assume you have three children and you wish to disinherit one of them and you state you want all of your assets to go to the other two, and if they are not alive, then to their descendants. If those other two children die before you and do not have any descendants, there may be a provision that in such a case your "heirs at law" are to take your entire estate and that would include the child you intended to disinherit.
If you wish to disinherit a child, all of these issues can be addressed with proper and careful drafting by a qualified estate planning lawyer.
Monday, April 27, 2015
The Expenses of Probate, PART I: WHO PAYS THE FEES FOR A PROBATE WHEN SOMEONE DIES?
Minnesota Probate Lawyer Explains Who Is Responsible for Paying Probate Fees
Recently, a client came to me to assist her with handling her mother’s estate. Her mother was sick for many years and had taken the time to plan as orderly a transition as possible after her death. She had a will drafted by an attorney and discussed her wishes with her relatives. The main asset was a money market account that would be paid out according to the will.
At our first meeting, I explained how probate works and the fees involved. She then asked the inevitable question of who pays for the probate. I explained that the estate is responsible for paying any fees associated with probate. “Well, there is money in an account, but how do I get that money out?” OR “The bank told me I can’t get the money until the court appoints me as personal representative. How do I pay the fees now?” As a Minnesota probate lawyer, I hear this question a lot.
And here is the circular problem with paying for probate. The personal representative needs to pay to open up a probate, but can’t get the money until the probate is done. Unfortunately, this means that the personal representative must front the money for working through the probate until he/she is officially appointed by the court and can then access the money that has been frozen since the decedent died.
Contact a Minnesota probate attorney now to ask about the process of opening a probate.
What are the fees involved with probate? Read Part II of this series to find out.
Tuesday, April 21, 2015
Choosing a Guardian for Minor Children
If you are a parent and you are considering estate planning, one of the most difficult decisions you will have to make is choosing a guardian for your minor children. It is not easy to think of anyone else, no matter how loving, raising your child. Yet, you can make a tremendous difference in your child’s life by planning ahead.
The younger your child, the more crucial this choice is, because very young children cannot form or express their own preferences about caregivers. Yet young children are not the only ones who benefit from careful parental attention to guardianship. Children close to 18 years old will be legal adults soon, but, as you well know, may still need assistance of a parental figure after the fact.
By naming and talking about your choice of guardian, you can encourage a lifelong bond with a caring family. The nomination of guardians is a straightforward aspect of any family’s estate plan. It can be as basic or detailed as you want. You can simply name the guardian who would act if both you and your spouse were unable to or you can provide detailed guidance about your children and the sort of experiences and family environment you would like for them. Your state court, then, can give strong weight to your expressed wishes.
There are essentially four steps to this process. First, make a list of anyone you know that might be a candidate for guardian of your children. It is important to think beyond your sisters and brothers and consider cousins, aunts and uncles, grandparents, child-care providers and business partners. You might also want to consider long-time friends and those you’ve gotten to know at parenting groups as they may share similar philosophies about child-rearing. Second, make a list of factors that are most important to you. Here are some to consider:
- Child-rearing philosophy
- Presence of children in the home already
- Interest in and relationship with your children
- Ability to meet the physical demands of child care
- Presence of enough “free” time to raise children
- Religion or spirituality
- Marital or family status
- Potential conflicts of interest with your children
- Willingness to serve
- Social and moral habits and values
- Willingness to adopt your children
You might find that all or none of these factors are important to you or that there are others that make more sense in your particular situation. The third step is to, match people with priorities. Use the factors you chose in step two to narrow your list of candidates to a handful.
For many families, it is as easy as it looks. For others, however, these three steps are fraught with conflict. One common source of difficulty is disagreement between spouses. But, consensus is important. Explore the disagreements to see what information about values and people is important to one another and use all of your strongest communications skills to understand each other’s position before you try to find a solution that you can both feel good about. Step four is to make it positive. For some parents, getting past this decision quickly is the best way to achieve peace of mind and happiness. For others, choosing a guardian can be the start of an intensive relationship-building process. An attorney who understands where you and your spouse fall on that spectrum can counsel you appropriately.
Wednesday, April 15, 2015
An executor's fee is the amount charged by the person who has been appointed as the executor of the probate estate for handling all of the necessary steps in the probate administration. Therefore, if you have been appointed an executor of someone’s estate, you might be entitled to a fee for your services. This fee could be based upon a variety of factors and some of those factors may be dependent upon state, or even local, law.
General Duties of an Executor
- Securing the decedent's home (changing locks, etc.)
- Identifying and collecting all bank accounts, investment accounts, stocks, bonds and mutual funds
- Having all real estate appraised; having all tangible personal property appraised
- Paying all of the decedent’s debts and final expenses
- Making sure all income and estate tax returns are prepared, filed and any taxes paid
- Collecting all life insurance proceeds and retirement account assets
- Accounting for all actions; and making distributions of the estate to the beneficiaries or heirs.
This list is not all-inclusive and depending upon the particular estate more, or less, steps may be needed.
As you can see, there is a lot of work (and legal liability) involved in being the executor of an estate. Typically the executor would keep track of his or her time and a reasonable hourly rate would be used. Other times, an executor could charge based upon some percent of the value of the estate assets. What an executor may charge, and how an executor can charge, may be governed by state law or even a local court's rules. You also asked whether the deceased can make you agree not to take a fee. The decedent can put in his or her will that the executor should serve without compensation but the named executor is not obligated to take the job. He or she could simply decline to serve. If no one will serve without taking a fee, and if the decedents will states the executor must serve without a fee, a petition could be filed with the court asking them to approve a fee even if the will says otherwise. Notice should be given to all interested parties such as all beneficiaries.
If you have been appointed an executor or have any other probate or estate planning issues, contact us for a consultation today.
Monday, April 06, 2015
Should You Just Add Your Kid to Your Bank Account?
Minnesota Probate Lawyer Discusses the Issues with Simply Adding A Child to Your Bank Account
If I had a dime...
Why don't I just add my adult child to my bank account? She helps me with all my bills anyway? This questions has the honor of being the one I am asked the most. This post will discuss some of the concerns raised by handling your estate this way.
When deciding who will inherit your assets after you die, it is important to consider that you might outlive the beneficiary you choose. If you have added someone to your financial accounts to ensure that he or she receives this asset after you die, you might be concerned about what will happen should you outlive this person.
What happens to a joint asset in this situation depends upon the specific circumstances. For example, if a co-owner that was meant to inherit dies first, the account will automatically become the property of the other co-owners and will not be included in the decedent’s estate. However, whether it is somehow included in this person’s taxable estate, and is therefore subject to state death tax, also depends on state law. Assuming the other co-owners were the only ones to contribute to this account, and that the decedent did not put any of his or her money into the account, there may be state laws that provide that these funds are not taxed. The other co-owners might have to sign an affidavit to that effect and submit it to the state department of revenue with the tax return.
And if the adult child encounters money problems, a creditor could attach a lien to the bank account and reduce the amount you have saved for your peace of mind.
Also, if the decedent’s estate was large enough to require the filing of a federal estate tax return the same thing may be needed in order to exclude this money from his or her taxable estate. You would generally state that this person’s name was placed on the account for convenience, and that the money was contributed by the other co-owners.
If you are considering adding someone to your financial accounts so that they inherit it when you die, you should contact an experienced estate planning attorney to discuss your options.
Monday, March 30, 2015
For How Long Should a Business Keep Tax Records?
Minnesota Estate Planning Lawyer Talks About the Issues Related to Keeping Tax Records
There are many reasons for retaining tax records. They can be a useful guide for business planning, for tracking receipts and expenses, and in cases where the company or shares are being sold to outside parties.
The IRS expects taxpayers to keep records for as long as they are needed to administer any part of the Internal Revenue Code. In other words, if you fail to keep records, and an item in a past return is questioned, you may not have the documentation you need to defend yourself and avoid taxes and penalties. In addition, insurance companies and creditors may wish to see tax returns even after the IRS no longer does.
What is the "Period of Limitations" for a Tax Return?
Generally, you must keep records that support income and deductions for a tax return until the "period of limitations" for that return elapses. This is the period during which you can still amend your return to get a refund or credit and during which the IRS can still assess more tax. It varies depending on the circumstances surrounding each return.
- If you owe additional tax, but you haven't seriously underpaid, committed fraud, or failed to file a return, the period is 3 years from the date taxes were filed.
- If you failed to report income that you should have reported, in excess of 25% of the gross income that you did report, the period is 6 years.
- If you filed a claim for credit or refund after you filed your return, the period is the later of 3 years after the return was filed or 2 years after tax was paid.
- If you filed a claim for a loss from worthless securities or a bad debt deduction, the period is 7 years.
- If you filed a fraudulent return or failed to file a return, the period is unlimited.
Note: Returns filed before taxes are due are treated as though they were filed on the due date.
Other Periods of Limitations
Additionally, if you are an employer, you must keep employee tax records for at least 4 years after the later of the date the tax becomes due or the date it is paid.
For assets, you should keep records until the period of limitations elapses for the year in which you sell the property in a taxable transaction. You will need records to compute depreciation, amortization, or depletion deductions and to add up your basis in the property for purposes of calculating gain or loss. A business law attorney experienced in tax matters can further guide you in relation to your specific situation
Monday, March 02, 2015
Changing Uses for Bypass Trusts
Minneapolis Estate Planning Lawyer Explains the Reasons Why You May Want a Bypass Trust
Every year, each individual who dies in the U.S. can leave a certain amount of money to his or her heirs before facing any federal estate taxes. For example, in 2013, a person who died could leave $5.25 million to his or her heirs (or a charity) estate tax free, and everything over that amount would be taxable by the federal government. Transfers at death to a spouse are not taxable.
Therefore, if a husband died owning $8 million in assets in 2013 and passed everything to his wife, that transfer was not taxable because transfers to spouses at death are not taxable. However, if the wife died later that year owning that $8 million in assets, everything over $5.25 million (her exemption amount) would be taxable by the federal government. Couples would effectively have the use of only one exemption amount unless they did some special planning, or left a chunk of their property to someone other than their spouse.
Estate tax law provided a tool called “bypass trusts” that would allow a spouse to leave an inheritance to the surviving spouse in a special trust. That trust would be taxable and would use up the exemption amount of the first spouse to die. However, the remaining spouse would be able to use the property in that bypass trust to live on, and would also have the use of his or her exemption amount when he or she passed. This planning technique effectively allowed couples to combine their exemption amounts.
For the year 2013, each person who dies can pass $5.25 million free from federal estate taxes. This exemption amount is adjusted for inflation every year. In addition, spouses can combine their exemption amounts without requiring a bypass trust (making the exemptions “portable” between spouses). This change in the law appears to make bypass trusts useless, at least until Congress decides to remove the portability provision from the estate tax law.
However, bypass trusts can still be valuable in many situations, such as:
(1) Remarriage or blended families. You may be concerned that your spouse will remarry and cut the children out of the will after you are gone. Or, you may have a blended family and you may fear that your spouse will disinherit your children in favor of his or her children after you pass. A bypass trust would allow the surviving spouse to have access to the money to live on during life, while providing that everything goes to the children at the surviving spouse’s death.
(2) State estate taxes. Currently, Minnesota has an estate tax exemption of 1.2 million per person (to increase to 2 million by 2018), so a bypass trust may be helpful to allow you and your spouse to combine your assets that can be exempt from state estate tax.
(3) Changes in the estate tax law. Estate tax laws have been in flux over the past several years. What if you did an estate plan assuming that bypass trusts were unnecessary, Congress removed the portability provision, and you neglected to update your estate plan? You could be paying thousands or even millions of dollars in taxes that you could have saved by using a bypass trust.
(4) Protecting assets from creditors. If you leave a large inheritance outright to your spouse and children, and a creditor appears on the scene, the creditor may be able to seize all the money. Although many people think that will not happen to their family, divorces, bankruptcies, personal injury lawsuits, and hard economic times can unexpectedly result in a large monetary judgment against a family member.
Although it may appear that bypass trusts have lost their usefulness, there are still many situations in which they can be invaluable tools to help families avoid estate taxes.
Don't pay unnecessary taxes, call a Minneapolis estate planning attorney now to discuss your options with an attorney.
Monday, February 23, 2015
A Discussion of Wills, Part 3: Beware of “Simple” Estate Plans
“I just need a simple will.” It’s a phrase I hear at least once a week. What could be wrong with that? This post explains the many common situations in which a "simple will" may not be a good fit for your family tells the cautionary tale of one family who relied on a will purchased at a stationary store.Read more . . .
Monday, February 16, 2015
What Happens If Your Heir Doesn't Want What You Are Giving?
Beneficiaries may not want the asset left to them? Why? And what happens if they reject it? I explain the reasons why someone may reject an inheritance and what happens to it if they do.Read more . . .
Monday, February 09, 2015
When to Involve Adult Children in the Estate Planning Process
Should you bring your kids to meet with your estate planning attorney? I discuss the issues related to having them present and what an estate planning attorney should do if you want the children involved.Read more . . .
Monday, January 26, 2015
Leaving a Timeshare to a Loved One
You have a timeshare in a warm sunny place and want to leave it to a loved one to inherit. How can you do this? What are the issues unique to owning a timeshare?Read more . . .
From within Hennepin County Unique Estate Law represents estate planning and elder law clients throughout Minnesota, including Minneapolis, Edina, Bloomington, St. Louis Park, Minnetonka, Plymouth, Wayzata, Maple Grove, St. Paul, and Brooklyn Park. The Minnesota law firm of Unique Estate Law focuses on all aspects of estate planning, including specialized wills, trusts, powers of attorney and medical directives for married couples, young families, blended families, single parents, gay families and those going through a divorce. Unique Estate Law also handles probate administration, asset protection, Medical Assistance planning, elder law, business succession planning, adoptions and cabin planning.